There are three moderators that are correlated with work-life imbalance: Gender, time spent at work, and family characteristics.
Gender differences could lead to a work life imbalance due to the distinct perception of role identity. It has been demonstrated that men prioritize their work duties over their family duties to provide financial support for their families, whereas women prioritize their family life.
Spending long hours at work due to "inflexibility, shifting in work requirements, overtime or evening work duties" could lead to an imbalance between work and family duties. It has been demonstrate "that time spent at work positively correlate with both work interference with family and family interference with work, however, it was unrelated to cross domain satisfaction" This could be due to the fact that satisfaction is a subjective measure. This being said, long hours could be interpreted positively or negatively depending on the individuals. Working long hours affect the family duties, but on the other side, there are financial benefits that accompanies this action which negate the effect on family duties.
Family characteristics includes single employers, married or cohabiting employers, parent employers and dual-earning parents. Parents who are employed experience reduced family satisfaction due to their family duties or requirements.This is due to the fact that they are unable to successfully complete these family duties. In addition, Parent workers values family oriented activities, thus, working long hours reduce their ability to fulfil this identity, and, in return, reduce family satisfaction. As for the married and/ or dual-earning couples, it seems that "not only require more time and effort at home but also are a resource for individuals to draw from, both instrumentally through higher income and emotionally through increased empathy and support."
In addition to these moderators that could lead to an imbalance, many people expose themselves to unsolicited job stress, because they enjoy high social recognition. This aspect can also be the cause of an imbalance in the areas of life. However, other occupational activities could also lead to such an imbalance, for example, unpaid labor such as contribution to house and garden work, maintenance and support of family members or volunteer activities. All of these contribute to the perception of a chronic lack of time. Lacking time leads to pressure, which is experienced differently based on the individual's age, the age and number of children in the household, marital status, the profession and level of employment and the income level. Strong pressure of time lead to increased psychological strain, which in turn affects health. Psychological strain is also affected by the complexity of work, the growing responsibilities, concerns for long-term existential protection and more. The mentioned stresses and strains could lead in the long term to irreversible, physical signs of wear as well as to negative effects on the human cardiovascular and immune systems.